Boston: Allyn & Bacon. I think 4 is a wonderful group size, perfect to pair off or work as a whole group. Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. Collaborative Learning Lopez, Maryan Joy Informal method of teaching and learning where students join together to further certain learning goals or create a major project. Positive goal interdependence tends to result in promotive interaction, negative goal interdependence tends to result in oppositional interaction, and no interdependence tends to result in no interaction. The interdependence may be positive (which results in individuals working cooperatively to achieve their mutual goals) or negative (which results in individuals competing to see who will achieve the goal). Each may cause the other. Cooperative learning was embedded in methods of teaching English course. The second issue is understanding the research validating social interdependence theory. Two important aspects of using informal cooperative learning groups are to (a) make the task and the instructions explicit and precise and (b) require the groups to produce a specific product (such as a written answer). Since cooperation and conflict are inherently related, the procedures and skills for managing conflicts constructively are especially important for the long-term success of learning groups. Some of the main challenges turn out to be students' free-riding (the lack of participation on behalf of some students), their focus on individual academic goals while neglecting collaborative goals, and teachers’ difficulties in accurately assessing students’ participation. Meaning of interactiveness. Now, if you don’t have a perfect amount, an extra group of 3 or 5 isn’t bad. Positive interdependence creates a commitment to other people’s success as well as one’s own and is the heart of cooperative learning. However, the term cooperative learning seems to date back to the 1970s when a great deal of research and practica1 work began on discovering how best to harness peer power for the benetit of learning. Deutsch, M.  (1949). If one fails, all fail. Teachers have to teach teamwork skills just as purposefully and precisely as teachers do academic skills. The impact of cooperative learning on achievement means that if schools wish to prepare students to take proficiency tests to meet local and state standards, the use of cooperative learning should dominate instructional practice. The research on social interdependence, furthermore, has an external validity and a generalizability rarely found in the social sciences. Friends are a developmental advantage (see Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). The degree of emotional bonding that exists among students has a profound effect on students’ behavior. Also, Kolawole posited that cooperative learning strategy was more effective than competitive learning strategy in teaching of Mathematics at secondary school level. 3. Cooperation and trust: Some theoretical notes. Powered by Squarespace. When utilizing these three types of cooperative learning, any learning situations in any subject area with any age students and with any curriculum can be structured cooperatively. New York:  Hawthorn. If correct, the group will receive another problem. Cooperative learning is a teaching method. Teachers (a) formulate both academic and social skills objectives, (b) decide on the size of groups, (c) choose a method for assigning students to groups, (d) decide which roles to assign group members, (e) arrange the room, and (f) arrange the materials students need to complete the assignment. 4. These three types of cooperative learning may be used together (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 2008). The class ends with a base group meeting. Effort exerted to achieve includes such variables as achievement and productivity, long-term retention, on-task behavior, use of higher-level reasoning strategies, generation of new ideas and solutions, transfer of what is learned within one situation to another, intrinsic motivation, achievement motivation, continuing motivation to learn, and positive attitudes toward learning and school. ConditionsAchievementInterpersonal AttractionSocial SupportSelf-Esteem, Note:  Coop = Cooperation, Comp = Competition, Ind = Individualistic, Reprinted By Permission From:  Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. (1989). Cooperative learning is an extremely useful strategy in that it involves students in established, sustained learning groups or teams. This is one of the largest bodies of research within psychology and education. introduced features of good discourse and collaboration, also influenced by the Association for Middle-Level Education: If you are planning on including small group activities as a part of your instruction, and want to avoid common complications outlined above, it is a good idea to devote a few lessons at the beginning of your course to coaching your students. Let them know that everyone should be able to explain the group’s thinking. The diversity of the samples studied and the variety of measures of psychological health provide considerable generalizability of the results of the studies. With our students and colleagues, we have conducted a series of studies relating cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts and attitudes to various indices of psychological health (see Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2005). Social interdependence:  The interrelationships among theory, research, and practice. Human Relations, 2, 129-152. Give a reaction to the theory, concepts, or information presented. The teacher decides which goal structure to implement within each lesson. In your classroom you should really only have groups of 4 students. Participants in the studies varied from ages three to post-college adults and have come from different economic classes and cultural backgrounds. When the five basic elements may be effectively implemented in formal cooperative learning situations (formal cooperative learning may be used to structure most learning situations), informal cooperative learning situations (informal cooperative learning may be used to make didactic lessons cooperative), and cooperative base groups (which are used to personalize a class and the school).